The economy of Kaimur district is mainly driven by agriculture and related industries like rice polishing. Rice, wheat, sugar cane, oil-seeds, pulses and maize are the main crops of the district. Kaimur is known as the rice bowl of Bihar. Canal irrigation system is very prominent in this region.

 The forest cover of Kaimur is 1,06,300 hectares. There is a good scope for forest based industries.

 Kaimur town it is a local trading center for food grains, agricultural products, and agricultural equipment.

The rice grown in Kaimur is sold in the markets of Kolkatta and Delhi.

Kudra is the industrial city of Kaimur as it has 12 big rice mills and 400 mini rice mills .

The district is scantily industrialised. A few private rice mills are functional mainly in Mohania sub-division

Industries located in the district include Vanaspati Oil Ltd. and the High Voltage Direct Current grid station of Power Grid Corporation of India at Pusauli.